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by Dr. C. H. Weaver M.D. updated 4/2020

As our outdoor activity and sun exposure begins to increase we need to remind ourselves about the risks of skin cancer. What is the balance between spending time outdoors enjoying all that summer has to offer and avoiding sun damage? Simply put – just follow these rules to staying sun safe and then enjoy the season! The key to finding that balance is acknowledging a few basic facts that should guide our time outside.

First, it is a myth that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays is justifiable in the name of vitamin D metabolism. The fact is we can get appropriate and healthy vitamin D through 15 minutes of direct sun exposure over the surface area of our hands.

Second, the incidence of skin cancer (cumulative sun exposure being the biggest risk factor) is on the rise. Basal and squamous cell carcinoma are now more common than all other cancers combined. They can be life threatening but are more commonly quality-of-life threatening—capable of destroying and deforming our skin if left untreated. If you have fair skin and live long enough, you are likely to get one of these cancer types.

The key to living fully under the sun is to be smart. Be outdoors and be “sunsensical” at the same time. That means moderation and common sense. To that end here are five key lessons to live by.

Say No Tanning Beds

Tanning beds are to skin cancer what cigarettes are to lung cancer. A recent study estimated that regular use of tanning beds increased the risk of melanoma by 75 percent. Tanning beds deliver radiation— varying degrees of UVA and UVB rays, depending on the machine. Both forms of radiation cause skin cancer (and premature aging). Avoid them.

Say Yes to Sunscreen

Put sunscreen on your body every day. Don’t forget your scalp and under your bathing suit. There is no evidence that one brand or product is better than another at preventing skin cancer. The best sunscreen out there is the one you will actually wear. If it is too expensive, too greasy, or too fragrant, you won’t wear it.

Like most over-the-counter products, not all sunscreens are created equal. Some sunscreens provide higher sun protection, whereas others contain ingredients that are better suited for children’s skin. The key is choosing a sunscreen that will provide the best sun protection for all family members and combine sunscreen use with other sun-smart behaviors.

Ultimately, the best type of sunscreen is the one you will use again and again. Just be sure to choose one that offers broad-spectrum protection, has a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or greater, and is water resistant. An SPF of 30 blocks 97 percent of the sun’s rays. SPFs higher than 30 blocks slightly more of the sun’s rays, but no sunscreen can block 100 percent. It is important to note that even if you are wearing a high-SPF sunscreen, it should be reapplied approximately every two hours when outdoors and after swimming or sweating.

Are chemicals in sunscreens dangerous? Parabens, triethanolamine, and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)—all have been shown in mice studies to have some adverse effects. The risk in humans is unclear, however, and the risk of direct and cumulative UV exposure far outweighs the unclear and very small risks associated with the use of any sunscreen. Please wear it.

Benefit from Early Detection

Examine your own skin every month on your birthday for an extra 10 minutes in the shower. A wound that bleeds with minimal trauma (like toweling), a wound that won’t heal over the course of a few weeks, a skin lesion that grows larger—all are signs of skin cancer. Additionally, any brown or black spot on the skin that is changing (shape, color, or size) is a red flag. Change is the most sensitive indicator of something you should have checked. At least once a year, have your skin checked by a dermatologist or primary care doctor.

Don’t Cut Corners on Treatment

If you’re diagnosed with skin cancer, treat it right the first time. Be your own advocate, ask questions, and make sure you are treated by an expert in the removal of skin cancer (certified by the American College of Mohs Surgery) and an expert in reconstructive surgery (board certification by the American Board of Plastic Surgery or the American Board of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery).

You Can Be Sun Safe and Still Look Great!

For a variety of reasons, our society sees pale skin as less attractive than tan skin. As a board-certified plastic and cosmetic surgeon, I understand and appreciate the importance of cosmetics and looking attractive, youthful, and rejuvenated. But the reward has to justify the risk. Radiating your skin to look temporarily better is not worth the increased risk of cancer that prolonged and repeated intense sun exposure carries. If you feel more attractive with a tan complexion, keep in mind that there are several very effective and very safe spray-tanning options on the market today that do not increase the risk of cancer and that give fantastic cosmetic results.

Protect Your Skin from Phytophotodermatitis

Margaritas and sunshine just belong together, don’t they? It sounds delicious, but if you’re not careful, it could result in a condition called “margarita dermatitis.” It turns out that when certain plant compounds come into contact with the skin they make the skin mores sensitive to sunlight. Lime juice is one of those compounds—hence the moniker, margarita dermatitis.

The real name is actually phytophotodermatitis and refers to a chemical reaction that makes skin hypersensitive to ultraviolet light. The result is a burning rash that commonly appears on the hands, wrists, forearms, or lower legs. Sometimes phytophotodermatitis results in blistering, and its key characteristic is that it burns rather than feeling itchy.

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Phytophotodermatitis happens in two steps: first the skin is exposed to a photosensitizing substance, and, second, that skin is exposed to UV light from the sun. When phytophotodermatitis occurs, a red, swollen rash develops about 12 to 36 hours after contact and is then replaced by an area of discoloration that can last for months or years. Phytophotodermatitis can be mistaken for several other conditions, but the key clue is that the rash often appears in the shape of drip marks or handprints. (In fact, the bruise-like marks in the shapes of fingers are sometimes mistaken for child abuse.)

Developing Phytophotodermatitis: Phytophotodermatitis is the result of photosensitizing chemicals called furocoumarins that are found in certain plants and fruits. These compounds are at their highest levels in spring and summer, which increases the likelihood of exposure. They are found in celery, parsley, citrus fruits, parsnips, figs, Queen Anne’s lace, bergamot, and more.

Exposure can result from fruit drippings, airborne particles, or scratches from branches. Phytophotodermatitis is more common in people who handle fruits and vegetables, such as bartenders, grocers or farm workers. Sometimes kids who play in grasses that come from the same family as Queen Anne’s lace will develop the condition. In addition, some natural perfumes or essential oils contain oils that come from wild plants containing the compound that causes phytophotodermatitis.

Avoiding Phytophotodermatitis: To avoid contracting phytophotodermatitis, be careful to thoroughly wash your skin after coming into contact with lime or lemon juice or other plant compounds associated with the condition. In addition, it’s important to apply sunscreen and limit sun exposure for healthy skin.

Phytophotodermatitis isn’t cause for alarm and shouldn’t stop you from enjoying that margarita or spending time in the sun (having applied sunscreen, of course). Just exercise a little caution.

Treating Phytophotodermatitis: Most cases of phytophotodermatitis are mild and don’t require a trip to the doctor. Treat the rash as you would treat a poison ivy rash—with cool compresses, hydrocortisone creams, and oral antihistamines. In severe cases, treatment might involve steroid pills.

So, get thee outside and enjoy summer—just make sure the lime stays in the glass.​

Skin Cancer Fast Facts & Tips – Who is at Risk?

Skin Cancer DOES NOT Discriminate

  • 1 out of 5 Americans will get skin cancer and although melanoma incidence is higher in caucasians, the 5-year survival rates for African Americans (78%) is significantly low¬er than that of caucasians (92%).(1,2)
  • 65% of those with skin of color feel they are not at risk for skin cancer.(3)
  • 62% of African Americans have never worn sunscreen.(4)
  • Only 17% of those with skin of color have had a skin check by a dermatologist.(5)

Play by The Rules!

  1. Seek shade from 10 am to 2 pm
  2. Reapply sunscreen every 2 hours
  3. Wear the right amount of sun¬screen (1 oz.)
  4. Get annual skin checks

Know The ABC’s of Melanoma

If Any Mole Shows Signs of One of the Following, It Should Be Examined Promptly:

A. Asymmetry When half of the more or lesion does not match the other
B. Border Irregular, scalloped or poorly defined, uneven edges.
C. Color Varied from one area to another; shades of tan and brown, black; sometimes white, red or blue.
D. Diameter Larger than 6mm as a rule (diameter of a pencil eraser)
E. Evolution/ Elevated Melanomas usually change in size, shape, or color over a short period of time. Ordinary moles stay the same size, shape, and color for many years.

Top 10 Safety Tips for Outdoor Enthusiasts

  1. Thirty minutes before going outdoors, apply a broad spec¬trum (UVA and UVB) sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher.
  2. Use a ping-pong-ball-sized amount of sunscreen (1 ounce) to cover your entire body.
  3. Cover your lips with a sun protective lip balm that contains an SPF of 30 or higher.
  4. Check expiration date on your sunscreen and remember that if you are using sunscreen properly, it should not last more than one season.
  5. Seek shade whenever possible.
  6. Wear a broad-brimmed hat (preferably at least 2 inches with a back flap) instead of a baseball cap to help protect your face, ears, and neck.
  7. Protect your eyes with UV-protective sunglasses.
  8. Wear sun protective clothing (for example, tightly woven cotton) including long pants and long-sleeved shirts as often as possible.
  9. Completely coat all exposed areas of your face and body. Don’t forget the ears, neck, nose, shoulders, and the backs of your hands, arms, and legs.
  10. Re-apply every two hours–even on a cloudy, overcast, or cool day. If you are going to be swimming, make sure to re-apply as soon as you get out of the water.


  1. American Academy of Dermatology.
  2. Wu XC, et al. Racial and ethnic variations in incidence and survival of cutaneous melanoma in the United States, 1999-2006. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011;65:S26-37.
  3. Kim M, et al. Perception of skin cancer risk by those with ethnic skin. Arch Dermatol 2009;145:207-8.
  4. Pichon LC, et al. Sun-protection behaviors among African Americans. Am J Prev Med 2010;38:288 –95
  5. Imahiyerobo-Ip J, et al. Skin cancer awareness in communities of color. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011;64:198-200.
  6. Imahiyerobo-Ip J, et al. Skin cancer awareness in communities of color. J Am Acad Dermatol