Heart Disease


There are several types of heart conditions that are considered forms of heart disease. The most common type of heart disease in the United States is coronary artery disease (CAD)—a condition that can cause a heart attack, angina, heart failure, and arrhythmias.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. Heart disease can run in families, either due genetic factors, common environmental and lifestyle factors, or a combination of the two.

Coronary artery disease is caused by build-up of plaque, or cholesterol deposits, in the coronary arteries—the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Plaque build-up can lead to a process called atherosclerosis, where the arteries begin to narrow and the heart doesn’t get enough blood. Eventually, CAD can lead to a weakened heart muscle, an irregular heartbeat, or heart failure. When heart failure occurs, the heart can’t effectively pump blood.

The following are conditions that can be caused by CAD:

Heart attack: The death of or damage to a section of the heart muscle; caused by reduced blood supply to the heart.

Angina: Chest pain or discomfort caused by inadequate blood supply to the heart; sometimes pain also occurs in shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back

Heart Failure: Also called congestive heart failure or chronic heart failure; the heart has not stopped but cannot pump as much blood as the body needs

Arrhythmias: Irregular heartbeats; may be abnormally fast or slow; can be serious and require immediate treatment, such as ventricular fibrillation


Common risk factors for heart disease include inactivity, obesity, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Fortunately, these risk factors can often be managed with lifestyle changes and medical treatment. Basically, this means that by keeping your blood cholesterol levels and blood pressure within in a normal range, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, and understanding your risk for diabetes or managing the condition if you do have it, you are taking important steps to reduce your risk of heart disease and its serious consequences. And because heart disease appears to run in families, if you do have a family history of the condition, it’s important to avoid lifestyle choices like smoking and poor diet that can further increase your risk.


Some people have no symptoms of CAD until they experience a heart attack. Because a heart attack may be the first sign that you have a heart condition, it’s very important to know the symptoms of a heart attack. Also know that a heart attack requires immediate treatment; you should call 9-1-1 right away if you experience any of these symptoms.

According to the CDC, the symptoms of a heart attack include:

  • Pain or discomfort in the jaw, neck, or back
  • Feeling weak, light-headed, or faint
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Pain or discomfort in the arms or shoulders
  • Shortness of breath

If you or someone you know is experiencing the symptoms of a heart attack, call 9-1-1 immediately.

Treating a heart attack as soon as possible can limit damage to the heart. When a heart attack occurs, blood supply to the heart is cut off, reducing oxygen supply to the heart muscles. As a result, cells in the heart muscle begin to die. Therefore, getting emergency treatment to restore blood flow to the heart as soon as possible is needed in order to limit damage.

Testing and Diagnosis

Several tests as well as information about your family’s history of heart disease can help you and your doctor determine your risk for CAD. Your doctor may start by checking your blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood glucose. If you are at high risk, additional testing can be used to diagnose CAD.

Tests for CAD include:

  • ECD or EKG (also known as an electrocardiogram)—a test to measure your heartbeat
  • Echocardiogram—an ultrasound image of the heart
  • Exercise stress test—tests how well your heart works when it must pump blood
  • Chest X-ray—image of the heart, lungs, and other organs in the chest
  • Cardiac catheterization—examines inside of arteries for damage; uses a thin, flexible tube, which is threaded through an artery in the groin, neck, or arm

Diet and Exercise

Diet and Nutrition

A healthy diet can help prevent or manage several risk factors associated with heart disease. Namely, by avoiding certain foods and eating more of others, you may be able to maintain healthy cholesterol levels and blood pressure as well as prevent excess weight gain—steps that can lower your risk of heart disease or prevent current heart disease from becoming worse.

According to the American Dietetic Association, a heart-healthy diet includes foods that are:

  • Low in saturated fat and trans fats (avoid meats, dairy products, deep-fried, processed foods that are high in saturated fats, and fried and unprocessed foods that contain trans fats)
  • High in omega-3 fatty acids (such as fish and olive oil)
  • High in fiber (such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables)
  • Low in salt and sugar

Excessive alcohol use should also be avoided. It may increase blood pressure and blood levels of triglycerides (fats), which are risk factors for heart disease and atherosclerosis, respectively.


Regular exercise can help control risk factors for heart disease including obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes and can help maintain healthy cholesterol levels.

The American Heart Association suggests at least 150 minutes per week (or 30 minutes per day, five days per week) of moderate exercise. Another suggestion is 75 minutes per week of vigorous exercise. You can also combine vigorous and moderate activities. If you’re not able to complete a 30-minute period of activity, the American Heart Association recommends breaking sessions down into two or three 10- to 15-minute segments per day.

You may choose the type of physical activity that you enjoy and that accommodates your abilities. Keep in mind that aerobic exercise (such as walking, swimming, or bicycling) can benefit the heart, whereas strength training (lifting weights) will contribute to stamina and bone health.

Always talk with your doctor before beginning any type of exercise program or making changes to your current routine.